The fifth hypothesis was that class would correlate positively with open-mindedness as indicated by low Scores on the Rokeach Adult Dogmatism Scale, Form E. This hypothesis was tested by computing the correlation between class and scores on the RADS, and by a comparison between the freshmen and seniors using a t-test.
The correlation between class and RADS scores was near zero. As shown by table 2, the seniors and the freshmen RADS scores were about equal. Thus the seniors were no more open-minded than the freshmen, so the fifth hypothesis was rejected. However, both the MIU freshmen and seniors scored more open-minded than norms established through students at Ohio State University, and colleges in England. The mean score for all MIU students was significantly more open-minded (t=3.75, df=173} than the Ohio State University group.
The sixth hypothesis was that MIU freshmen
would be no more open-minded than freshmen norms.
The MIU freshmen
scored much lower in dogmatism than
expected with a mean
score of 128.72 (see table 2). They
outperformed all the norms listed in Table 4.3 of Rokeach's
book The Open and Closed Mind (1960, p.90). Because of
this, the sixth
hypothesis was not confirmed. This result
is an indication
that students who elect to attend MIU are
The seventh hypothesis was that MIU seniors would out-perform established norms for college seniors in open-mindedness. The seniors were slightly higher in OM, but not significantly, than the freshmen, but were much higher than the norms Rokeach determined (1960, p.90). The t values for significance ranged from 2.50 to 11.45 for mean differences of 13.0 points with Ohio State University, and 54.9 with a New York Veterans Administration domiciliary, respectively. Thus the seventh hypothesis was firmly supported.
The eighth hypothesis was that there would be-a significant correlation between critical thinking ability and open-mindedness as found in the research. This hypothesis was rejected. WGCTA scores for all MIU students correlated only .17 with open-mindedness as measured using the RADS. The freshmen WGCTA scores correlated more strongly (.24) with OM but still not significantly.
However, the subtest of
recognize assumptions of the WGCTA did
(.53) with OM, that is it correlated
negatively (-.53) with
dogmatism as measured on the Rokeach Adult
Nevertheless, the lack of consistency
between the CT-OM
correlations in this study and those
found in the literature review, suggest
either a lack in
the research methodology of this study, or
difference between the student populations
The ninth hypothesis was that seniors would outperform MIU freshmen in EEG brain wave phase coherence. It was found that frontal bilateral alph1(F3F4 a) and frontal bilateral theta (F3F4 Ø) did correlate positively with class, but not significantly so. Occipital alpha showed a near zero correlation, and left and right alpha coherence measures showed a negative, non-significant correlation.
In light of these inconclusive findings, the ninth hypothesis was rejected. It should be pointed out that, with reference to hypotheses that length of time attending MIU, freshmen could have been practicing the TM program for a greater number of years than seniors who learned the technique later in life. The ninth hypothesis was also tested by comparing the means of five EEG measurements of freshmen and seniors through a t-test, finding no significant differences between classes.
The tenth hypothesis was that critical thinking ability would correlate positively with EEG measurements. There were no significant correlations between WGCTA scores and EEG scores, in fact the correlations between WGCTA and frontal alpha and theta measurements were negative (-.23 and -.22, respectively). EEG measurements turned out to be a worse predictor of CT in seniors than in freshmen, according to the correlation coefficients.
The eleventh hypothesis was that there would be a positive, but not necessarily significant, correlation between EEG coherence and open-mindedness. Here again, there were no significant correlations. Frontal alpha and theta coherence correlations were slightly positive, and left and right coherence correlations were slightly negative. Scores on the Rokeach Adult Dogmatism Scale appear to be independent of EEG brain wave phase coherence.
The twelfth hypothesis was that there would be a positive correlation between the majority of EEG coherence measurements. It was found that frontal alpha and frontal theta were highly correlated (.72). Left and right alpha coherence measures were also highly correlated (.82). Frontal alpha was significantly correlated with occipital alpha (.37). and non-significantly with left alpha (.30). Frontal alpha was found to be the best predictor of other EEG variables used. Frontal theta also correlated significantly with occipital alpha (.46). The twelfth hypothesis was confirmed that EEG variables would correlate positively with each other, but only about one-half of these were statistically significant.
The thirteenth hypothesis was that there
would be no
difference between male and female students
thinking ability. This hypothesis was
tested by computing
the correlation between sex and WGCTA
scores (1=male, 2=female)
and by comparing the means of the two groups through a t-test.